There is a profound lesson even in some of the simplest mathematical problems: a good representation is half the success. For example, can you count the number of subsets in a finite set?

Let's see what the solution can teach us!

First things first: notations and definitions. A set between the absolute value symbols denotes the number of elements in the given set. This is called cardinality.

$\begin{align*} |A|: &\text{ the number of elements in } A \\ &(\text{the \textit{cardinality} of } A) \end{align*}$

Moreover, $\textstyle 2$ raised to the power of a set is just the set of all its subsets. (That is, its power set.)

$\begin{align*} 2^A: &\text{ the set of all subsets of } A \\ &(\text{the \textit{power set} of } A) \end{align*}$

Back to counting subsets!

A natural idea is to count the subsets of a given size separately and then sum them up. This works as well but requires knowledge about binomial coefficients.

However, we can find a much better way by looking at subsets differently!

We can represent each subset with a 0-1 vector, whose components encode the membership of the given elements. This is much easier to count.

The membership vectors establish a bijection between the power set and the Cartesian product $\{0, 1\} \times \{0, 1\} \times \{0, 1\}$. Counting the elements of one is the same as counting the other. And elements of Cartesian products are easy to count!

To be more precise, we have the bijection

$\begin{align*} f: 2^{\{1, 2, 3\}} &\to \{0, 1\}^3, \\ \{1, 2, 3\} \supseteq S &\mapsto (c_1, c_2, c_3) \in \{0, 1\}^{3}, \end{align*}$

where $c_i$ is defined by

$c_i = \begin{cases} 0 & \text{if } i \notin S \\ 1 & \text{if } i \in S. \end{cases}$

By visualizing $\{0, 1\}$ and its powers, we notice a pattern: with each product, the number of elements doubles! Thus, their cardinality is easy to calculate.

This method can be applied to any finite set as well. By encoding the subsets by a membership vector, we can establish a bijection between the power set and the powers of $\{0, 1\}$. In this general case, the bijection is defined by

$\begin{align*} f: 2^{A} &\to \{0, 1\}^{|A|}, \\ A \supseteq S &\mapsto (c_1, c_2, \dots, c_{|A|}) \in \{0, 1\}^{|A|}, \end{align*}$

where $c_i$ is again

$c_i = \begin{cases} 0 & \text{if } i \notin S \\ 1 & \text{if } i \in S. \end{cases}$

Thus, we obtain the general formula describing the cardinality of power sets:

$|2^A| = |\{0, 1\}^{|A|}| = 2^{|A|}.$

You can see for yourself how far a good representation can take us! By utilizing a simple bijection, we transformed the problem into a much simpler one.

In mathematics, this is often the key.